Technical solutions engineer Interview Questions

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Technical Solutions Engineer was asked...17 September 2019

What port does ftp use? (That seemed like a trick question because they only wanted one port)

7 Answers

In FTP, Port 20 is used for the data whilst port 21 is used for commands

Port numbers 21 and 20 are used for FTP. Port 21 is used to establish the connection between the 2 computers and port 20 to transfer data. Less

20 (data) & 21 (commands) for regular ftp, 989 (data) & 990 (commands) for ftps. not sure why they want 20 though since the first connection is typically established on 21, unless they're specifically troubleshooting why data isn't being transferred Less

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What are the packets sent in a TCP connection?

6 Answers

Syn // Syn - Ack // Ack

It's either you are so confused with the question or that question actually is very vague. It is not very clear. It seems that's obviously not the actual question you heard. The interviewer is probably asking "What are the information is in a TCP packet?" - This question makes lot of sense. Less

Whoever answered it with a 3 way handshake (SYN/SYN-ACK/ACK) does not know what the question is about. Less

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Google

Linux: view a column in the csv in the command line

4 Answers

awk can be used

awk -F";" '{print $2}' /path/to/csv_file.csv <- corrected

awk -F, '{print $1}' or cut -d, -f1 (replace '1' w/ desired column number(s))

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Google

What is the fastest Big O equation?

4 Answers

I think that should be O(1).

1 < logn < n < nlogn < n^2 < 2n. Fastest is O(1) and slowest is O(2n) Less

Not sure why but glassdoor replaced my less than operator with <. Replace < with less than operator for the above answer Less

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Google

what are the three TCP connection packets names?

3 Answers

what is a DNS server?

Domain Names Service: A web directory of domain name to IP address. It converts human readable domain names (like: www.google.com) into IP addresses (like: 8.8.4.4). Less

SYN -- SYN-ACK -- ACK Host A sends a TCP SYNchronize packet to Host B Host B receives A's SYN Host B sends a SYNchronize-ACKnowledgement Host A receives B's SYN-ACK Host A sends ACKnowledge Host B receives ACK. TCP socket connection is ESTABLISHED. Less

Google

in what cases sigkill fails

3 Answers

in case when sigkil signal is not recieved

if you're trying to kill a process that was not started by your user or you're trying to send this signal to init process, PID 1, even as root Less

Adding to the answers, trying to kill a zombie process.

Google

what signal does the kill command send by default?

3 Answers

Example: chmod 0755 0 - Indicates special file permissions. 755 indicates read, write and executable permissions for User, Group and Others. Example2: chmod ugo+rwx is equilvalent to adding read, write and execute permissions to (u)ser, (g)roup and (o)thers. + is used to append file permissions. - is used to removed file permissions. Special File permissions: 0 - No special file permissions. 1 - Set Sticky bit 2 - Set SGID 4 - Set SUID Less

The kill command sends a signal to a process. If you don't specify which signal to send, by default the TERM signal is sent, which terminates the process if it has been handled by the process. Less

How many bits does Linux use to encrypt file permission?

Google

How would you implement a URL shortener without a backend?

3 Answers

This depends on the definition of "backend." Taken typically to mean "some sort of database," this becomes problematic -- most compression algorithms will not work efficiently on such short strings. If allowed to use Unicode, however, this becomes trivial for extended ASCII URLs (this solution will not work for full UTF-8 URLs): Generate a list of all Unicode characters except those encompassed in extended ASCII. Given the formula x > 256^n + 256, where x is the number of characters in our Unicode minus ASCII set, find the maximum integral value of n. For all single extended ASCII characters and all extended ASCII strings of length n, generate a hash where the key is the ASCII character or string, and the value is one of your Unicode characters, where each Unicode character is used only once. Generate an identical hash, reversed, such that the keys are the Unicode characters and the values are the extended ASCII characters/strings. When shortening the URL, split it into strings of length n. For each resultant string of length n (the final string may be shorter than n), find the corresponding Unicode character and add it to your shortened URL string. For the final string, split it into single characters and find the corresponding Unicode character (this is an increase in memory usage, but on decode will result in less logic operations as opposed to leaving these as plain ASCII). Return this string to users. Use the reverse hash to decode. Note that you could identify a Unicode character to use as an escape character and likely support full UTF-8 URLs. The hash, of course, would be lost in the event of the application exiting, but could be rebuilt. You could also just cheat and use flat files instead of a database! Less

A web server rewrite rule should be suffice

With all the logic in the Frontend. JS can do this stuff.

Google

what happens exactly when traceroute command is issued?

2 Answers

traceroute issues packet(s) for the destination with RTT set as 1 on random ports which, on reaching the first router, expires and ICMP expired message is received back. Now RTT is set to 2 and more packets are sent. They expire on the second router and ICMP messages are returned back. This is done to map the reachability of source to the destination. This methodology is gradually extended until we reach the destination (and ICMP messages starts coming back from them). Less

TTL timer set for dummy packets increases everytime....

Google

How to grant admin privileges on an executable file so any user can execute the file?

3 Answers

chmod a+x filename

the term 'admin privileges' implies setuid, so you'd want to use chmod u+s (or 4755 for full octal mode) and make sure the file is owned by root (or whatever 'admin' user is needed). normally setuid root is a bad idea for security reasons, unless it's a system command like mount, su/sudo, passwd, etc but ignoring the security implications, setuid. Less

chmod +111

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